Eight discourse





*The seven things to be realised by meditation


Arjuna said:


What is that Brahman? What about the Individual Self (Adhyatma)? What is action (Karma), O Purushottama? And what is declared to be the physical region (Adhibhuta)? And what is the divine region (Adhidaiva) said to be? And how and who is Adhiyajna (the Entity concerned with Sacrifice) here in this body, O Madhusudana, and how at the time of death art Thou to be known by the self-controlled?


The Lord proceeds to answer these questions in their order:

The Blessed Lord said:


Brahman is the Imperishable (Akshara), the Supreme. The Ego is said to be the Individual Self (Adhyatma, He who dwells in the body). The offering which causes the origin of physical beings is called action (Karma).



The physical region (Adhibuta) is the perishable existence, and Purusha or the Soul is the divine region (Adhidaivata). The Adhiyajna (Entity concerned with Sacrifice) is Myself, here in the body, O best of the embodied.



And whoso, at the time of death, thinking of Me alone, leaves the body and goes forth, he reaches My being; there is no doubt in this.


*Constant meditation of the Divine is necessary


Not to Me alone does this rule apply; but also:


Of whatever Being thinking at the end a man leaves the body, Him alone, O son of Kunti, reaches he by whom the thought of that Being has been constantly dwelt upon.



Therefore at all times do thou meditate on Me and fight: with mind and reason fixed on Me thou shalt doubtless come to Me alone.


*The Divine Being to be meditated upon




Meditating with the mind engaged in the Yoga of constant practice, not passing over to any thing else, one goes to the Supreme Purusha, the Resplendent, O son of Pritha.


What sort of Purusha does he reach ?—Listen:


Whoso meditates on the Sage, the Ancient, the Ruler, smaller than an atom, the Dispenser of all, of unthinkable nature, glorious like the Sun, beyond the darkness, (whoso meditates on such a Being) at the time of death, with a steady mind endued with devotion and strength of Yoga, well fixing the life-breath betwixt the eye-brows, he reaches that Supreme Purusha Resplendent.


*Meditation of the Divine in the Pranava



That Imperishable Goal which the knowers of the Veda declare, which the self-controlled and the passion-free enter, which desiring they load the godly life, —That Goal will I declare to thee with brevity.



Having closed all the gates, having confined mind in the heart, having fixed his life-breath in the head, engaged in firm Yoga, uttering Brahman, the one-syllabled 'Om,' thinking of Me, whoso departs, leaving the body, he reaches the Supreme Goal.


*No re-birth on attaining to tlie Divine Being.




Whoso constantly thinks of Me and long, to him I am easily accessible, O son of Pritha, to the ever-devout Yogin.



Having attained to Me, they do not again attain birth, which is the seat of pain and is not eternal, they having reached highest perfection.



(All) worlds including the world of Brahma are subject to returning again, O Arjuna; but, on reaching Me, O son of Kunti, there is no rebirth.


*The Day and the Night of Brahma.



They—those people who know day and night—know that the day of Brahma is a thousand yugas long and the night is a thousand yugas long.



From the Unmanifested all the manifestations proceed at the coming on of day; at the coming on of night they dissolve there only, in what is called the Unmanifested.



This same multitude of beings, having come into being again and again, is dissolved at the coming on of night, not of their will, O son of Pritha, and comes forth at the coming on of day.


*The Highest Goal—how reached



But that other eternal Unmanifested Being, distinct from this Unmanifested (Avyakta), —He does not perish when all creatures perish.



What is called the Unmanifested and the Imperishable, That, they say, is the highest goal; which having reached none return. That is My highest place.



Now, that Highest Purusha, O son of Pritha, within Whom all beings dwell, by Whom all this is pervaded, is attainable by exclusive devotion.


* The Paths of Light and Darkness



Now, in what time departing, Yogins go to return not, as also to return, that time will I tell thee, O chief of the Bharatas.



Fire, light, day-time, the bright fortnight, the six months of the northern solstice,—then departing, men who know Brahman reach Brahman.



Smoke, night-time, and the dark fortnight, the six months of the southern solstice,—attaining by these to the lunar light, the Yogin returns.



These bright and dark Paths of the world are verily deemed eternal; by the one a man goes to return not, by the other he returns again.



Knowing these paths, O son of Pritha, no Yogin is deluded: wherefore at all times be steadfast in Yoga, O Arjuna.


* Excellence of Yoga


Now, hear of the greatness of that Yoga



Whatever fruit of merit is declared to accrue from the Vedas, sacrifices, austerities and gifts,—beyond all this goes the Yogin on knowing this; and he attains to the Supreme Primeval Abode.




Index    Top of page